The EZVI process involves placing nanoscale zero-valent iron particles into a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable oil-in-water emulsion. Contaminants are pulled into the emulsion where the contaminant reacts with the zero-valent iron. The contaminants are degraded into ethene and other hydrocarbons that are broken down through biological activities in the subsurface.
The AMTS treats PCBs in paints, and consists of a solvent solution that contains an activated zero-valent metal. AMTS is first applied to the painted surface using a spray-on or wipeon technique. The solution then extracts the PCBs from the paint. The extracted PCBs react with the microscale activated metal, and are degraded into benign byproducts.